Canada offers citizenship through naturalization and by birth in Canada.
To qualify for citizenship through naturalization, Canadians with 3 years of qualifying permanent resident status during the preceding 5 years may apply for Canadian citizenship.
Canadian Citizenship Requirements
Have met any applicable requirement under the Income Tax Act to file income taxes for any four taxation years that are fully or partially within the six years immediately before you apply
Intend to reside in Canada OR work outside Canada in or with, or accompany certain family members employed in or with: the Canadian Armed Forces or the federal public administration or the public service of a province
Be able to communicate (speak and understand) in English or French (if you are 65 years of age or older, this does not apply)
Be able to demonstrate, in English or French, knowledge about Canada and the responsibilities and privileges of citizenship (if you are 65 years of age or older, this does not apply)
18 years old or older
Have adequate knowledge of Citizenship Language Requirement, if under age 64
Minor Application (under 18 years of age)
Minors under 18 years of age may apply for citizenship if they are a permanent resident and have a parent who is either a Canadian citizen, or who is applying for citizenship at the same time. The completed application and processing fee is all that is required — they do not need to take the citizenship test.
You may be ineligible for Canadian citizenship if you
Are under a removal order
Have a criminal record or are facing changes in Canada
Been refused Canadian citizenship as a result of misrepresentation
Had your Canadian citizenship revoked
Processing of Citizenship Application
Applications are submitted to the citizenship office in Sydney, Nova Scotia where they are pre-screened to ensure the application is complete and the 4-year residence rule has been met. Within about 12 months from submission, applicants will be required to attend an interview to demonstrate their knowledge of Canada in one of Canada' Official languages.
If your application for Canadian citizenship is refused, this decision may be appealed to the Federal Court of Canada. The first step in the appeal process involves filing a Notice of Application to the Federal Court within 30 days of receipt of the decision from Citizenship. This timeline is very important.